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2016年涂料企业经营策略设计四法:趁势突围 稳中求胜

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 阳光城开年首战告捷 多区域喜报频传 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

一二线城市购房标准不断升级 大面积渐受青睐

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

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Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province made the biggest progress in improving traffic with measures including vehicle restrictions and better road links, said the report.
采光。在工作中,光线是很重要的,不要用上大学时候的那个小台灯了,用个更别致更有创意的灯吧。
"It's not sustainable growth because they're not being rented out and they're pricing people in the local market out of buying."
10月份,中国社会消费品零售总额增长放缓。另一方面,尽管上月出口走弱,中国规模以上工业增加值和全国固定资产投资增长仍大致保持平稳。
"People can be unhappy for many reasons -- from poverty to unemployment to family breakdown to physical illness," the report said. "But in any particular society, chronic mental illness is a highly influential cause of misery. If we want a happier world, we need a completely new deal on mental health."
当然,劳动力市场的复苏一直是渐进的,并可能保持这种状况。就业增长速度就需要在目前基础上大大提高,才能让失业率真正大为改观。失业率虽然低于三年前的10%,现在仍然高达7.9%。[qh]

单词approval 联想记忆:
champion
今年,纽约市公寓的平均售价突破了100万美元(约合人民币623万元),这是一个影响深远的里程碑。随着城市人口的激增,错过了上一轮楼市繁荣期的社区,都见证了房价和楼盘数量的增长。
The most popular surgical procedures include double eyelid surgery - which reduces excess skin in the upper eyelid to make the eyes appear bigger, lipoplasty - which uses high-frequency sound waves to eliminate fat - and nose jobs.
When the cup is lifted and removed from the dispenser, the magnet seals the bottom and the drink is ready to be enjoyed.

Footnotes

  • 房地产市场出现回暖迹象 趋势确立仍需观察
  • 马克斯将与她的朋友克洛伊一起,揭开她的同学雷切尔o安布尔神秘失踪背后的真相。游戏具有电影的体验感,配有不拘一格的原声,将当下年轻女孩的焦虑与生死攸关的情境结合了起来,再加上了时光倒流的能力,这一切使得这款游戏脱颖而出。尽管该作品中采用的机制在其他游戏中曾经用过,但由法国开发商制作的美国风格游戏,还是让这种定时操作有耳目一新的感觉。

200911/88512.shtmlA 1936 Nobel Peace Prize discovered at a South American pawn shop has been sold at auction in Baltimore for $1.16 million.
Indeed, everyone from Jennifer Garner, to January Jones and Kylie Jenner have been photographed as they pick out their most spook-worthy pumpkins in time to send October out with a thrill.
It set minimum prices too high for commodities including cotton, sugar and corn, and as those prices diverged from the market prices, authorities encouraged excessive production as well as strong import flows.
['t?ɑ:t?]
比特币区块被讨论得最多的一项潜在用途,是去中心化的打车服务“Uber”。客户无需使用特定软件,就能订车并直接向司机付款,去掉中间商。(Uber创始人特拉维斯o卡兰尼克,抱歉)区块能用于各种用途,从储存安全文件(去中心化的的Dropbox)到“水印”技术,水印技术是指某块特定的比特币能包含比如你房子的房契。Digital Currency Group投资主管赖安o希尔基斯表示:“区块将催生数十年的创新。这可能催生零阻力股票发行、所有权转让以及智能合同。而上述事物共同构成了经济的支柱。如果你想创建分散管理的优步、Dropbox以及Facebook,你可以重塑互联网。”Digital Currency Group由前SecondMarket创始人巴里o希尔伯特创办。
然而据北京出入境边防检查总站(Beijing General Station of Exit and Entry Frontier Inspection)称,只有14,000名旅客办理了过境免签手续,远低于官方此前预计的20,000人。

怪相:房价涨市场一片骂声 房价跌还是骂声

References

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